Free download Lettres persanes ¶ PDF DOC TXT or eBook

Free read Lettres persanes

Free download Lettres persanes ¶ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ↠ [Read] ➪ Lettres persanes By Montesquieu – This richly evocative novel in letters tells the story of two Persian noblemen who have left their country the modern Iran to journey to Europe in search of wisdom As they travel they wriOlourful observations on the culture differences between West and East culture conjure up Eastern sensuality repression and cruelty in contrast to the freer civilized West but here also unworthy nobles and bishops frivolous women of fashion and conceited people of all kinds. This book from 1721 written during and set at the beginning of that licentious interregnum between the death of Lou #14 and the majority of boytoy #15 known as the Regency took me a while to read considering its brevity possibly because it lent itself to reading in small morsels which could be chewed upon slowly and digested in repose Or perhaps because its many tasty tidbits were interspersed with an euivalent amount of unappealing chaff which needs must be sorted through somewhat laboriously Nevertheless it was a feast for the mind whose courses were carefully arranged to stimulate an appetite for philosophical reflection on topics as varied as human nature sexual politics moral and customary relativity and especially reason vs superstition as our two Persian travelers write home to their friends and wives about the curious practices and prejudices of the Europeans which causes them to reflect sometimes seriously upon their own meurs All of this is written with a witty tongue which is often placed with various degrees of firmness somewhere in the vicinity of the cheek eg ‘They have their little courteous ways which in France would seem inappropriate; for example a captain never flogs his soldier without asking his permission and the Inuisition never condemns a Jew to be burnt at the stake without apologizing to him ‘Spaniards who are not burnt at the stake seem to be so fond of the Inuisition that it would seem peevish to deprive them of it; I only wish that another Inuisition could be established not against heretics but against heresiarchs who attribute the same efficacy to trivial monastic practices as they do to the seven sacraments who worship everything they venerate and are so pious that they are barely Christians ‘You can find wit and common sense among Spaniards but do not seek these in their books; take a look at a Spaniard’s library one half novels and the other half works of scholasticism; you’d say that the parts had been chosen and the whole thing put together by some secret enemy of human reason ‘The only one of their books that is good is the one that makes fun of all the others107That one good book full of all of the humours of humankind is of course Cervantes' Don uixoteHighly recommended for anyone who wishes to encounter the birth of France's Enlightenment the way the French themselves did at the time—the book was such a scandale de succès that its anonymous author dined out not so anonymously on its repute for some years through a clutch of printings and always with a wary eye out for the censor of course In the end I would say of it what Montesuieu himself says of The University of Paris which is the eldest and very elderly daughter of the kings of France for she is than nine hundred years old; conseuently she is occasionally confused147—and I would add occasionally boring often outrageous but always very very learned

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Are satirized Storytellers as well as letter writers Montesuieu's Usbek and Rica are disrespectful and witty but also serious moralists Persian Letters was a succès de scandale in Paris society and encapsulates the libertarian critical spirit of the early eighteenth century. The nice thing about reading early 'novels' is that they so often have nothing in common with a typical contemporary novel That's definitely the case for PL of which only the first dozen and the last half dozen pages are are connected in any kind of narrative Not only that the narrative is immensely dull unless you're the sort of person who gets off on descriptions of Harem life Such people are I'm sure less common now than they were in the 18th century A general warning if you're prone to crying with rage any time a European shows curiosity in Oriental sic culture you'll have to be very very careful with this book Some of it smacks of crazy ethnocentrism On the other hand the book is much critical of French society than it is of 'Persian' society The meat of the book consists in letters written to and from various 'Persians' seeing France and some other parts of Europe for the first time Like all good satire it takes the normal well normal for 18th century French novel readers views it from another perspective and finds it to be both hilarious and horrifying If you've read other 18th century moralists you'll know what to expect freedom intelligence stoicism nature good; tyranny love of money theology badBut I oversimplify because easily the best thing about the book is how free floating it is I found it virtually impossible to tell when Montesuieu wanted his authors to agree with the letter writers and when to disagree Which had the awful depressing effect of making me think about things For that I knock off two stars because thinking about things is way too hard work for me

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Lettres persanesThis richly evocative novel in letters tells the story of two Persian noblemen who have left their country the modern Iran to journey to Europe in search of wisdom As they travel they write home to wives and eunuchs in the harem and to friends in France and elsewhere Their c. Lettres Persanes Persian Letters MontesuieuPersian Letters is a literary work written in 1721 by Charles de Secondat baron de Montesuieu recounting the experiences of two Persian noblemen Usbek and Rica who are traveling through France In 1711 Usbek leaves his seraglio in Isfahan to take the long journey to France accompanied by his young friend Rica He leaves behind five wives Zashi Zéphis Fatmé Zélis and Roxane in the care of a number of black eunuchs one of whom is the head or first eunuch During the trip and their long stay in Paris 1712–1720 they comment in letters exchanged with friends and mullahs on numerous aspects of Western Christian society particularly French politics and Moors ending with a biting satire of the System of John Law Over time various disorders surface back in the seraglio and beginning in 1717 Letter 139 the situation there rapidly unravels Usbek orders his head eunuch to crack down but his message does not arrive in time and a revolt brings about the death of his wives including the vengeful suicide of his favorite Roxane and it appears most of the eunuchsتاریخ نخستین خوانش سال 1970 میلادیعنوان نامه های ایرانی؛ نویسنده مونتسکیو؛ مترجم ارسنجانی؛ تهران، انتشارات مروج، 1320؛ در 215ص؛ موضوع داستانهای نویسندگان فرانسوی سده 18معنوان نامه های ایرانی؛ نویسنده مونتسکیو؛ مترجم محمد مجلسی؛ تهران، دنیای نو، 1387، در 424ص؛ چاپ سوم 1392؛ در 504ص؛ شابک 9789641720096؛نامه‌های ایرانی یکی از آثار ادبی «شارل دو مونتسکیو» است و مضمون آن نامه‌ هایی فرضی هستند، که در اواخر سلطنت لوئی چهاردهم، بین سالهای 1711میلادی 1720میلادی، نگارش یافته‌ اند؛ «مونتسکیو» این نامه‌ ها را از زبان دو ایرانی ثروتمند به‌ نام‌های «ازبک» و «ریکا» که در مدت مسافرت خود به اروپا، برای مدتی طولانی در فرانسه اقامت گزیده‌ اند، نوشته است؛ این کتاب پایه فکری اثر بعدی «مونتسکیو» یعنی «روح القوانین» است؛رمان نخستین بار در سال 1721میلادی در آمستردام، با نام مستعار منتشر شد، داستان برداشت دو ایرانی از اروپا و به‌ ویژه فرانسه است؛ نامه‌ های ارسالی از ایران، عمومأ از طرف «خواجه» و زنان حرمسرای «ازبک» هستند، که رخدادهای روز مملکت، و اتفاقات بدیمن، همانند خودکشی سوگلی حرمسرای ازبک، «روشنک» را، به‌ آگاهی ارباب می‌رسانند؛ سبک دلنشین نگارش نامه‌ های ایرانی، که خوانشگر را مجذوب می‌کند، گزارش طنزآمیز از آداب و رسوم رایج در پاریس و اروپا است؛ نامه‌ های «ریکا»، که از دیدگاه یک شرقی نگارش شده، لوئی چهاردهم را جادوگری می‌پندارد، که پول‌های خزانهٔ شاهی را با یک حرکت دست، دوبرابر می‌کند، یا «پاپ» به‌ مردم چنین القا کرده است، که «سه» برابر با «یک» است کنایه از اعتقاد به تثلیث؛ و دیگر اینکه، نان، نان نیست و شراب، شراب نیست کنایه از گوشت و خون عیسی مسیح؛ در احوال آرایش پاریسی‌ها می‌گوید آنها موهای خود را به‌ حدی به طرف بالا جمع می‌کنند، که صورتشان درست در وسط بدنشان قرار می‌گیرد لیکن در پشت این طنز هنرمندانه، «مونتسکیو»ی آموزگار جدی اخلاق، پنهان شده‌ است، تا دستگاهی را نقد کند، که هیئت حاکمهٔ آن با قدرت نامحدود، و تجاوزکارانه‌ خویش، حق حیات را، از ملت سلب نموده است؛ «مونتسکیو» با نوشتن «نامه‌ های ایرانی»، گامی بلند، در راستای جنبش روشنگری اروپا، و برای پی‌ریزی طرحی نو، براساس آزادی، حقیقت و تفاهم، برداشتندبه طنز کشیدن فرانسه، و داستان غم‌انگیز حرمسرای ایرانی، دو روی سکه‌ ای هستند، که آزادی‌های فردی، و قابلیت‌های عمومی را، در غیاب نظم و قاعده و قانون، به تصویر میکشند؛ بخشی از نامه‌ ها، به‌ تشریح مذاهب، و تشابه آنها به یکدیگر، یا تضاد موجود در ادیان، از دیدگاه «ازبک»، پرداخته است؛ «مونتسکیو» در قسمتی از این کتاب، چنین می‌گوید ایرانی نامبرده، از سوی یکی از دوستان فرانسویش، به یک نفر فرانسوی دیگر، معرفی شد؛ هنگامی که آن شخص گفت «این آقا ایرانی است» طرف با نهایت شگفتی اظهار داشت «آقا ایرانی است، شگفتا چطور می‌توان ایرانی بود؟»؛ اندیشه ی کوتاه قامت آن مرد نمی‌توانست بپذیرد، که غیر از فرانسویان، کسان دیگری هم در گیتی هستند؛ «مونتسکیو» «نامه‌های ایرانی» را، در سال 1721میلادی در سی و دو سالگی خویش نوشتند، و هفت سال بعد، در سال 1728میلادی، به خاطر همین کتاب، به عضویت فرهنگستان فرانسه درآمدند؛ این کتاب نخست، شصت و چند نامه بوده، که نویسندگانی دیگر نامه‌ هایی به سبک «مونتسکیو»، بدان افزوده‌ اند؛ «یوهان ولفگانگ گوته» درباره ی این کتاب می‌گویند مونتسکیو در «نامه‌